The replacement process requires the removal of FeO and MgO from olivine and the addition of CaO, H 2 O, and O 2 . Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies indicate that the Skaergaard ilvaite is the orthohombic polymorph. Ilvaite crystalized under conditions of high fH 2 O, low fCO 2 , low fO 2 , and moderate T during the subsolidus cooling of the intrusion.--Modified journal abstract.

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