Abstract

The process of increasing the (00l) spacings of expanded clay minerals to facilitate their identification was introduced by Bradley (1945), MacEwan (1946, 1948), and others. They demonstrated that numerous organic substances would enter the expanded clay lattices along the (001) plane between the 2.1 sheets, replacing the water. The organic molecule is generally larger than the water it replaces and the result is that the d spacings of the (00l) reflection series are increased. The resulting increase in d spacings is easily recognized, and the presence of expanded clays can be demonstrated even in complex clay mixtures.

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