Most students have difficulty in visualizing the optical relations in biaxial crystals and the instructor finds it helpful to use models of some kind to supplement the diagrams given in the textbooks. Various models of the wave-surfaces, Fresnel ellipsoids, and index ellipsoids have been made and may be procured from German dealers. In my course in crystal optics I employ the index ellipsoid exclusively, following the suggestion of F. E. Wright. A model of a triaxial ellipsoid is almost indispensable but it is hardly adequate to elucidate all of the important optical features of biaxial crystals.

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