Most geological hammers are of a pattern modified from the stone-mason's hammer, made with short square ends, and to be used more for chipping than for breaking. The two hammers sketched were made by ordinary black-smiths, of common drill-steel, and have been found to serve the purpose of breaking rock much more effectively than the orthodox pattern. The smaller one is light enough to be carried all day without any fatigue, and yet it is heavy enough to be constantly used. The larger one is very well adapted for collecting in one locality, the wide chisel edge being especially useful in prying up shale ledges, or in cleaving massive minerals.

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