Investigations on the phase stability of the norsethite-type family [BaMg(CO3)2, BaMn(CO3)2, BaFe(CO3)2] under high-pressure conditions are of great significance for understanding the structure and metal cationic (Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+) substitution mechanism in double divalent metal carbonates. The structural evolution and equation of state of BaFe(CO3)2 were studied at high pressure up to ~7.3 GPa by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) in diamond-anvil cell (DAC) in this study. BaFe(CO3)2 undergoes a reversible phase transition from R3m (α-phase) to C2/c (γ-phase) space groups at ~3.0 GPa. The fitted elastic parameters are V0 = 377.79(2) Å3 and K0 = 40.3(7) GPa for α-BaFe(CO3)2, V0 = 483.24(5) Å3 and K0 = 91.2(24) GPa for γ-BaFe(CO3)2 using second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (BM2-EoS). Besides, the vibrational properties and structural stability of complete norsethite-type minerals were also investigated first by Raman spectroscopy combined with DAC up to 11.1 GPa. Similar structural phase transitions occur in BaMg(CO3)2, BaFe(CO3)2, BaMn(CO3)2 at 2.2–2.6, 2.6–3.7, and 3.7–4.1 GPa, respectively. The onset phase transition pressures of the norsethite-type family are much lower than that of dolomite-type Ca(Mg,Fe,Mn)(CO3)2 and calcite-type (Mg,Fe,Mn)CO3 carbonates. These results provide new insights into the divalent cation substitution effects on the stability and structural evolution of carbonates under high-pressure conditions.