Kroupaite (IMA 2017-031), ideally KPb0.5[(UO2)8O4(OH)10]·10H2O, is a new uranyl-oxide hydroxylhydrate mineral found underground in the Svornost mine, Jáchymov, Czechia. Electron-probe micro-analysis (WDS) provided the empirical formula (K1.28Na0.07)Σ1.35(Pb0.23Cu0.14Ca0.05Bi0.03Co0.02Al0.01)Σ0.48 [(UO2)7.90(SO4)0.04O4.04(OH)10.00]·10H2O, on the basis of 40 O atoms apfu. Sheets in the crystal structure of kroupaite adopt the fourmarierite anion topology, and therefore kroupaite belongs to the schoepite-family of minerals with related structures differing in the interlayer composition and arrangement, and charge of the sheets. Uptake of dangerous radionuclides (90Sr or 135Cs) into the structure of kroupaite and other uranyl-oxide hydroxy-hydrate is evaluated based on crystal-chemical considerations and Voronoi-Dirichlet polyhedra measures. These calculations show the importance of these phases for the safe disposal of nuclear waste.