This work describes the mineralogy of dolomite carbonatite occurring at the Newania carbonatite complex, Rajasthan, north-western India. The mineralogy records the textural and compositional features of magmatic and post-magmatic stages of carbonatite evolution. Ferroan dolomite is the principal constituent and displays variable degrees of deformation, ranging from brittle-to-ductile deformation regimes. Apatite exhibits textural and compositional evolutionary trends from early-to-late stages of carbonatite evolution. Two varieties of amphibole are reported for the first time from this complex, ferri-winchite and cummingtonite; the former is magmatic and the latter is metamorphic in origin. The columbite–tantalite-series minerals are columbite-(Fe), and their paragenesis evolves from composite grains with pyrochlore to individual crystals. Pyrochlore is magmatic with U–Ta–Ti-rich compositions and shows evolution from calciopyrochlore to kenopyrochlore, followed by alteration during late-stages of carbonatite evolution. Monazite and baryte constitute the post-magmatic mineral assemblage; the former is hydrothermal and crystallised after precursor apatite, whereas the latter is associated exclusively with columbite–pyrochlore composites. On the basis of the mineralogy of the carbonatite, it is concluded that the parent magma was generated by low-degree partial melting of magnesite–phlogopite-bearing peridotite.