The high-silica rhyolitic Joe Lott Tuff was erupted at 19.2 ± 0.4 Ma from the Mount Belknap caldera, SW Utah. Certain units in the tuff contain two species of wakefieldite, the Nd- and Y-dominant types. They occur in disseminated streaks and patches in association with rhodochrosite, calcite, Fe oxide, cerite-(Ce), and a Mn silicate (caryopilite?), thought to have been deposited from hydrothermal fluids. The wakefieldites contain the highest levels of As (≤15.34 wt.% As2O5) and P (≤5.7 wt.% P2O5) yet recorded in this mineral, indicating significant solid solution towards chernovite-(Y) and xenotime-(Y). Thorium levels are also unusually high (≤14.2 wt.% ThO2). The source of the hydrothermal fluid(s) is unknown but might be related to uranium mineralisation in the region, in that As, V and U are commonly associated in such deposits.

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