Abstract

The new mineral stefanweissite, IMA2018-020, was discovered in sanidinite volcanic ejecta from the Laach Lake (Laacher See) paleovolcano, Eifel region, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Associated minerals are sanidine, nosean, biotite, augite, titanite, ferriallanite-(La), magnetite, baddeleyite and a pyrochlore-group mineral. Stefanweissite is brown and reddish-brown, with adamantine lustre; the streak is light brown to yellow. It forms long-prismatic crystals up to 0.03 mm × 0.07 mm × 1.0 mm and acicular crystals up to 2 mm long and 0.02 mm thick typically combined in radiated aggregates in cavities in sanidinite. Dcalc. = 5.254 g/cm3. The mean refractive index calculated from the Gladstone–Dale equation is 2.260. The Raman spectrum shows the absence of hydrogen-bearing groups. The chemical composition is (electron microprobe, wt.%): CaO 7.63, MnO 2.51, FeO 7.86, Al2O3 0.25, La2O3 2.28, Ce2O3 6.54, Pr2O3 1.01, Nd2O3 1.59, ThO2 3.71, UO2 1.09, TiO2 17.32, ZrO2 28.03, HfO2 0.91, Nb2O5 19.96, total 99.69. The empirical formula based on 14 O atoms per formula unit is Ca1.13(Ce0.33La0.12Nd0.08Pr0.05)Σ0.58Th0.12U0.03Mn0.29Fe0.91Al0.04Zr1.89Hf0.04Ti1.80Nb1.19O14. The simplified formula is (Ca,REE)2Zr2(Nb,Ti)(Ti,Nb)2Fe2+O14. Stefanweissite is orthorhombic, with space group Cmca. The unit-cell parameters are: a = 7.2896(4) Å, b = 14.1435(5) Å, c = 10.1713(4) Å and V = 1048.68(7) Å3. The crystal structure was solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Stefanweissite is an analogue of zirconolite-3O with Nb dominant over Ti in one of two octahedral sites. The strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [d, Å (I, %) (hkl)] are: 2.983(100)(202), 2.897(71)(042), 1.828(38)(154, 400, 333), 1.793(25)(244), 1.767(16)(080), 1.517(10)(282), 1.187(19)(483, 1.11.3, 602). Type material is deposited in the collections of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, with the registration number 5191/1.

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