The hydrocerussite-related phase, NaPb5(CO3)4(OH)3, has been found as colourless lamellar crystals in cavities within a pebble of the ancient marine slag collected in the Pacha Limani area of the Lavrion mining district, Attiki, Greece. This phase of anthropogenic origin was characterized by electron microprobe, infrared spectroscopy, powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The unique crystal structure (P63/mmc, a = 5.2533(11), c = 29.425(6) Å, V = 703.3(3) Å3 and R1 = 0.047) is based upon structurally and chemically different electroneutral blocks. Each of the blocks can be split into separate sheets. The outer sheets in each block are topologically identical and have the composition [PbCO3]0. The [Pb(OH)2]0 lead hydroxide sheet is sandwiched between the two [PbCO3]0 sheets resulting in the formation of the first block [Pb3(OH)2(CO3)2]0 structurally and compositionally identical to that one in hydrocerussite Pb3(OH)2(CO3)2. Similarly the [Na(OH)]0 sheet is sandwiched between another two [PbCO3]0 sheets thus forming the [NaPb2(OH)(CO3)2]0 block described previously in the structure of abellaite NaPb2(OH)(CO3)2. Stereochemically active lone electron pairs on Pb2+ cations are located between the blocks. There are two blocks of each type per unit cell, which corresponds to the following formula: [Pb3(OH)2(CO3)2][NaPb2(OH)(CO3)2] or NaPb5(CO3)4(OH)3 in the simplified representation. The formation of NaPb5(CO3)4(OH)3 in Lavrion slags is by the contact of lead-rich slags with the sea water over the last two thousand years.

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