Structural modifications with temperature of adamite, Zn2(AsO4)(OH), were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction up to dehydration and collapse of the crystal structure. In the temperature range 25–400°C, adamite shows positive and linear expansion. Axial thermal expansion coefficients, determined over this temperature range, are αa = 1.06(2) × 10–5 K–1, αb = 1.99(2) × 10–5 K–1, αc = 3.7(1) × 10–6 K–1 and αV = 3.43(3) × 10–5 K–1. Axial expansion is then strongly anisotropic with αa:αb:αc = 2.86: 5.38 : 1. Structure refinements of X-ray diffraction data collected at different temperatures allowed us to characterize the mechanisms by which the adamite structure accommodates variations in temperature. Expansion is limited mainly by edge sharing Zn(2) dimers along a and by edge sharing Zn(1) octahedra chains along c; on the other hand, connections of polyhedra along b, the direction of maximum expansion, is governed by corner sharing. Increasing temperature induces mainly an axial expansion of Zn(1) octahedron, which becomes more elongated, and no significant variations of the Zn(2) trigonal bipyramids and As tetrahedra. Starting from 400°C, deviation from a linear evolution of unit-cell parameters is observed, associated with some deterioration of the crystal, a sign of incipient dehydration. The process leads to the formation of Zn4(AsO4)2O.