Vanadium, V, is a new mineral found in sublimates of high-temperature fumaroles of the Colima volcano, Mexico. The mineral precipitates over a narrow temperature range of 550–680°C, and occurs in association with colimaite (K3VS4) and shcherbinaite (V2O5). Native vanadium was been found on the inner wall of an inserted silica tube and subsequently in the adjacent rock of the Z3 fumarole. Vanadium forms smooth, irregular to flattened crystals, 5–20 μm in diameter. Smaller irregular crystals have also been observed in silica tubes. Due to its small crystal size, its physical properties (hardness, cleavage and density) could not be determined. An EDS spectrum indicated the presence of V, Fe, Al and Ti with an empirical formula calculated on the basis of EPMA analyses of V0.86Fe0.09Al0.04Ti0.01. Gandolfi and glancing-angle X-ray diffraction data showed that the microcrystals were body-centred cubic, space group Imm, a = 3.022(3) Å, V = 27.60 (5) Å3, Z = 2. The five strongest calculated diffraction lines are [d spacings in Å, (I) (hkl)]: 2.1411 (100)(110), 1.5126 (12)(200), 1.2301 (19)(211), 0.9565 (8)(310) and 8.8090 (11)(321). The calculated density is 6.033 g cm–3. Thermochemical modelling was used to explain why very oxidized gas at Colima precipitates V- bearing minerals and some native elements (vanadium and gold). Vanadium, is the second newly recognized mineral species (after colimaite) collected from an active fumarole in this volcanic crater. The mineral and its name have been approved by the CNMNC (IMA 2012-021a).