Mineral exploration is becoming more challenging with most visible and near-surface deposits already discovered. With our increasingly metal- and resource-dependent global society, the demand for all mineral resources is escalating. Of particular note, because of concern about supply security, are the ‘critical metals’ such as the platinum-group elements, the rare earth elements, lithium, indium, tellurium, selenium and chromium, to name but a few. In addition, the expanding populations of ‘BRICS’ countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) will lead to greater urban and infrastructure development, requiring more base metals, iron ores, aluminium, and bulk commodities. Advances in mineral exploration,...

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