Abstract

Galena from four REE-rich (Khibina, Sallanlatvi, Seblyavr, Vuoriyarvi) and REE-poor (Kovdor) carbonatites, as well as hydrothermal veins (Khibina) all from the Devonian Kola Alkaline Province of northwestern Russia was analysed for trace elements and Pb and S isotope compositions. Microprobe analyses show that the only detectable elements in galena are Bi and Ag and these vary from not detectable to 2.23 and not detectable to 0.43 wt.% respectively. Three distinct galena groups can be recognized using Bi and Ag contents, which differ from groupings based on Pb isotope data. The Pb isotope ratios show significant spread with 206Pb/204Pb ratios (16.79 to 18.99), 207Pb/204Pb (15.22 to 15.58) and 208Pb/204Pb ratios (36.75 to 38.62). A near-linear array in a 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb ratio diagram is consistent with mixing between distinct mantle sources, one of which formed during a major differentiation event in the late Archaean or earlier. The S isotopic composition (δ34S) of galena from carbonatites is significantly lighter (−6.7 to −10.3‰ Canyon Diablo Troilite (CDT) from REE-rich Khibina, Seblyavr and Vuoriyarvi carbonatites, and −3.2 CDT from REE-poor Kovdor carbonatites) than the mantle value of 0‰. Although there is no correlation between S and any of the Pb isotope ratios, Bi and Ag abundances correlate negatively with δ34S values. The variations in the isotopic composition of Pb are attributed to partial melting of an isotopically heterogeneous mantle source, while those of δ34S (together with Bi and Ag abundances) are considered to be process driven. Although variation in Pb isotope values between complexes might reflect different degrees of interaction between carbonatitic melts and continental crust or metasomatized lithosphere, the published noble gas and C, O, Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic data suggest that the variable Pb isotope ratios are best attributed to isotopic differences preserved within a sub-lithospheric mantle source. Different Pb isotopic compositions of galena from the same complex are consistent with a model of magma replenishment by carbonatitic melts/fluids each marked by quite different Pb isotopic compositions.

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