The crystal structure of kyzylkumite, ideally Ti2V3+O5(OH), from the Sludyanka complex in South Baikal, Russia was solved and refined (including the hydrogen atom position) to an agreement index, R1, of 2.34% using X-ray diffraction data collected on a twinned crystal. Kyzylkumite crystallizes in space group P21/c, with a = 8.4787(1), b = 4.5624(1), c = 10.0330(1) Å, β = 93.174(1)°, V = 387.51(1) Å3 and Z = 4. Tivanite, TiV3+O3OH, and kyzylkumite have modular structures based on hexagonal close packing of oxygen, which are made up of rutile [TiO2] and montroseite [V3+O(OH)] slices. In tivanite the rutile:montroseite ratio is 1:1, in kyzylkumite the ratio is 2:1. The montroseite module may be replaced by the isotypic paramontroseite V4+O2 module, which produces a phase with the formula Ti2V4+O6. In the metamorphic rocks of the Sludyanka complex, vanadium can be present as V4+ and V3+ within the same mineral (e.g. in batisivite, schreyerite and berdesinskiite). Kyzylkumite has a flexible composition with respect to the M4+/M3+ ratio. The relationship between kyzylkumite and a closely related Be-bearing kyzylkumite-like mineral with an orthorhombic norbergite-type structure from Byrud mine, Norway is discussed. Both minerals have similar X-ray powder diffraction patterns.