Abstract

The Szklary holtite is represented by three compositional varieties: (1) Ta-bearing (up to 14.66 wt.% Ta2O5), which forms homogeneous crystals and cores within zoned crystals; (2) Ti-bearing (up to 3.82 wt.% TiO2), found as small domains within the core; and (3) Nb-bearing (up to 5.30 wt.% Nb2O5,) forming the rims of zoned crystals. All three varieties show variable Sb+As content, reaching 19.18 wt.% Sb2O3 (0.87 Sb a.p.f.u.) and 3.30 wt.% As2O3 (0.22 As a.p.f.u.) in zoned Ta-bearing holtite, which constitutes the largest Sb+As content reported for the mineral. The zoning in holtite is a result of Ta-Nb fractionation in the parental pegmatite-forming melt together with contamination of the relatively thin Szklary dyke by Fe, Mg and Ti. Holtite and the As- and Sb-bearing dumortierite, which in places overgrows the youngest Nb-bearing zone, suggest the following crystallization sequence: Ta-bearing holtite → Ti-bearing holtite → Nb-bearing holtite → As- and Sb-bearing, (Ta,Nb,Ti)-poor dumortierite → As- and Sb-dominant, (Ta,Nb,Ti)-free dumortierite-like mineral (16.81 wt.% As2O3 and 10.23 wt.% Sb2O3) with (As+Sb) > Si. The last phase is potentially a new mineral species, Al6□B(Sb,As)3O15, or Al52B(Sb,As)3O12(OH)3, belonging to the dumortierite group. The Szklary holtite shows no evidence of clustering of compositions around `holtite I' and `holtite II'. Instead, the substitutions of Si4+ by Sb3++As3+ at the Si/Sb sites and of Ta5+ by Nb5+ or Ti4+ at the Al(1) site suggest possible solid solutions between: (1) (Sb,As)-poor and (Sb,As)-rich holtite; (2) dumortierite and the unnamed (As+Sb)-dominant dumortierite-like mineral; and (3) Ti-bearing dumortierite and holtite, i.e. our data provide further evidence for miscibility between holtite and dumortierite, but leave open the question of defining the distinction between them. The Szklary holtite crystallized from the melt along with other primary Ta-Nb-(Ti) minerals such as columbite-(Mn), tantalite-(Mn), stibiotantalite and stibiocolumbite as the availability of Ta decreased. The origin of the parental melt can be related to anatexis in the adjacent Sowie Mountains complex, leading to widespread migmatization and metamorphic segregation in pelitic-psammitic sediments metamorphosed at ∼390–380 Ma.

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