Turkestanite, a rare Th- and REE-bearing cyclosilicate in the ekanite–steacyite group was found in evolved peralkaline granites from the Morro Redondo Complex, south Brazil. It occurs with quartz, alkali feldspar and an unnamed Y-bearing silicate. Electron microprobe analysis indicates relatively homogeneous compositions with maximum ThO2, Na2O and K2O contents of 22.4%, 2.93% and 3.15 wt.%, respectively, and significant REE2O3 abundances (5.21 to 11.04 wt.%). The REE patterns show enrichment of LREE over HREE, a strong negative Eu anomaly and positive Ce anomaly, the latter in the most transformed crystals. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry trace element patterns display considerable depletions in Nb, Zr, Hf, Ti and Li relative to whole-rock sample compositions. Observed compositional variations suggest the influence of coupled substitution mechanisms involving steacyite, a Na-dominant analogue of turkestanite, iraqite, a REE-bearing end-member in the ekanite–steacyite group, ekanite and some theoretical end-members. Turkestanite crystals were interpreted as having precipitated during post-magmatic stages in the presence of residual HFSE-rich fluids carrying Ca, the circulation of which was enhanced by deformational events.