Abstract

This study documents the textures and chemical evolution of igneous quartz (Qz) in granite from the Oslo Rift (Norway) during the magmatic-hydrothermal transition. Contrary to the other major igneous phases, primary quartz is well preserved. SEM-CL imaging documents four types of quartz (Qz1-Qz4). Qz1: bright primary magmatic quartz that grew under H2O-undersaturated conditions and developed a conspicuous sector zoning. Qz2: light grey luminescent secondary quartz that surrounds Qz1 and altered Qz1 in a 'non-destructive' process. Qz3: is usually darker than Qz2 and intersects Qz1 and Qz2. It is formed by dissolution/recrystallization processes involving saline deuteric fluids. Qz4: found in narrow cracks and patches of black quartz intersecting all the other types. EPMA in situ analyses of the different quartz generations confirm that the intensity of luminescence of quartz is positively correlated with the Ti content of the quartz. Aluminium and K are mostly incorporated in quartz in the form of [AlO4/K+]0 centre defects. In the Drammen granite, the Ti and Al contents of Qz1 averages 200 ppm and 80 ppm respectively. Titanium in Qz1 varies from 50 to 95 ppm in the peralkaline granite known as ekerite, whereas Al is irregular and ranges between 100 ppm and values below the limit of detection (LODAl at 2σ = 14 ppm). In all samples, Qz2 and Qz3 are strongly depleted in Ti and Al compared to Qz1. Either the Ti content in Qz2 is falling gradually towards Qz1 or more abruptly, whereas it is sharp from Qz3 towards Qz1 and Qz2. Potassium is variable in all four quartz types and samples, and ranges from values below the detection limit (LODK, at 2σ = 8 ppm) to 120 ppm. Grains in Qz4, being only 1-2μm wide, could not be resolved with the EPMA beam. In all granites, quartz crystallized from haplogranitic melts at P ∼1.5 kbar and T = 700 750°C. SEM-CL and EPMA studies of igneous Oslo Rift quartz illustrate vividly the complex chemical and physical processes that characterize the magmatic-hydrothermal transition in shallow granitic systems and show that the chemistry of primary aqueous fluids is strongly modified from its primary igneous composition before eventually being expelled from the granitic system and perhaps incorporated in ore-forming hydrothermal convection systems.

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