A Devonian weathering profile was developed near the contact of Riphean dolostone containing disseminated carbonate-fluorapatite and intensively pyritized black shales. Samples from the profile were investigated by XRF, SEM, electron microprobe and ion microprobe. Rock-forming minerals are apatite, diaspore, chlorite and kaolinite, while accessory minerals are svanbergite, anatase, pyrite and zircon.
Primary marine carbonate-fluorapatite is represented by extremely weathered crystals concentrated near the footwall. Dissolution of apatite and pyrite provided an acidic environment that is expressed in the formation of S-rich apatite and svanbergite. The environment allowed Ti migration which formed anatase in weathered apatite grains. Coupled substitution Na+ + S6+ = Ca2+ + P5+ is suggested in S-rich apatite. A large volume of dissolved carbonate rocks was a source of Sr necessary for svanbergite formation. Apatite of the third generation formed at the final stage of weathering is represented by small (10–30 μm) very well shaped crystals.