The Costa Rican forearc is characterized by active fluid venting related to mud diapirism and volcanism. The geochemical compositions of fluids obtained from dewatering sites indicate that mineral precipitation or dehydration is the major driver of fluid mobilization and upward migration. The peculiar situation at the latter sites is that Ca concentrations in the upward migrating fluids are well above seawater levels. In turn, these Ca-enriched fluids could offer a potential reason for widespread carbonate caps on top of the mounds. Here, a reactive-transport numerical model is applied to investigate the main biogeochemical processes at cold vents off Costa...

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