The rise and evolution of large vascular land plants (mainly trees) during the mid-to-late Palaeozoic resulted in increased consumption of atmospheric CO2 by accelerated silicate rock weathering followed by further consumption due to increased terrestrially-derived organic matter burial in sediments, with the latter accompanied by increased production of O2. Changes in CO2 and O2 have been treated theoretically in terms of carbon- and sulphur-cycle modelling (Berner and Kothavala, 2001; Berner, 2006a,b). The CO2 modelling rests on the palaeobotanical record, field observations of the effect of trees on...

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