The kinetics and mechanisms of the transformation of 2-line ferrihydrite (FH) to hematite (HM), in the presence of Pb at elevated temperatures and high pH condition, were elucidated using synchrotron-based, in situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD). The time-resolved diffraction data indicated that HM crystallization occurred via a two-stage process. Based on the EDXRD data, combined with high-resolution electron microscopic images, an aqueous-aided 2D growth mechanism is proposed for both HM crystallization stages.

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