The availability of analytical methods that utilize the very intense and bright X-rays from synchrotron radiation sources has fundamentally changed the way in which geoscientists, environmental scientists and soil scientists study complex environmental samples and decipher the chemical and biological processes that impact the speciation, transport and potential bioavailability of environmental toxins (Brown et al., 2006). Such samples are often mixtures of crystalline and amorphous phases in particle-sizes ranging from cm to nm, adsorbed metal ions and organic molecules, natural organic matter, microbial organisms, algae, plant materials and aqueous solutions. The processes that affect the chemical...

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