The formation and transformation of hydroxysulphate (GRSO4) and hydroxycarbonate (GRCO3) Green Rusts were studied in situ using synchrotron-based time-resolved small and wide angle X-ray scattering. The time-resolved data revealed, for the first time, the pH dependent transition from poorly-ordered schwertmannite (pH <6.5) into GRSO4 (pH ~6.8) followed by GRCO3 (at pH ~9.6). These data also showed that the addition of Zn to the starting sulphate Fe2+/Fe3+ solution resulted in a change in size of the GR unit-cell due to substitution of Zn into the GR structure.

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