Abstract

This paper examines the effects of shear stress on the structural parameters that define the ‘crystallinity’ of graphite. The results show that highly crystalline graphite samples ground for up to 120 min do not undergo detectable changes in the three-dimensional arrangement of carbon layers but crystallite sizes (Lc and La) decrease consistently with increasing grinding time. Grinding also involves particle-size diminution that results in lower temperatures for the beginning of combustion and exothermic maxima in the differential thermal analysis curves. These changes in the structural and thermal characteristics of graphite upon grinding must be taken into account when such data are used for geothermometric estimations.

Tectonic shear stress also induces reduction of the particle size and the Lc and La values of highly crystalline graphite. Thus, the temperature of formation of graphite according to structural as well as thermal data is underestimated by up to 100°C in samples that underwent the most intense shear stress. Therefore, application of graphite geothermometry to fluid-deposited veins where graphite is the only mineral found should take into consideration the effect of tectonic shearing, or the estimated temperatures must be considered as minimum temperatures of formation only.

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