Abstract

High-resolution imaging of electron-transparent samples using a scanning electron microscope, here termed low voltage (LV) STEM, is a new and valuable technique for studying Earth and planetary materials. The most effective method of LV-STEM imaging uses a pair of electron detectors positioned side-by-side beneath the thin sample. The detector directly underlying the sample forms bright-field images dominated by mass-thickness contrast. Activation of the detector offset from the sample yields dark-field images with a greater component of atomic number contrast. LV-STEM images with significant diffraction contrast can also be obtained, but require careful positioning of the sample relative to the electron detectors. In this study LV-STEM was used successfully to image sub-μm sized kaolinite crystals and tens of nm-sized etch pits on the gold-coated surfaces of weathered feldspar grains. Dark-field LV-STEM was also especially effective for characterizing very fine-scale intergrowths of Mg- and Fe-rich phyllosilicates within uniformly thin samples of the Murchison meteorite prepared using the focused ion beam (FIB) technique. LV-STEM is a quick and easy method for characterizing the morphology and internal structure of mineral and rock samples and may prove to be especially useful in geomicrobiology research.

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