Kianjavato emerald (Mananjary deposits, East coast of Madagascar) was formed during metasomatic processes at the contact between pegmatites and hornblendites. The metasomatic exchange was related to a Pan-African tectonometamorphic event.
Fluid inclusions in the Kianjavato emerald and quartz were studied by means of microthermometry and Raman probe analysis. Three main types of inclusions were revealed: CO2-rich, CH4-rich and aqueous-rich, with a salinity of ~2 wt.% NaCl equiv. The inclusions occurred along the same primary and pseudosecondary trails and were considered to be formed simultaneously. Based on fluid-inclusion data, the conditions of emerald growth were 250°C < T < 450°C and P = 1.5 kbar.
The fluid inclusion data for Kianjavato emerald were compared to the data for another Madagascar emerald, Ianapera. The latter is of similar age, but its genesis was determined by a shearing event. Our fluid inclusion data suggested that shearing was also important as a mechanism of introducing CO2-rich fluid for the genesis of the Kianjavato emerald.