Calc-alkaline dacites from the Setouchi volcanic belt contain garnet crystals that are classified petrographically and chemically into two types: type I and type M. Type-M garnets are characterized by acicular sillimanite inclusions or dissolution textures, and may be accompanied by xenolith fragments. They exhibit extensive compositional zoning with an increase in MgO/FeO and decrease in MnO content towards the margin. These petrographical and compositional features are identical to those of garnets from metamorphic xenoliths entrained in the Setouchi volcanic rocks, suggesting a xenocrystic origin for the type-M garnets. In contrast, type-I garnets lack sillimanite inclusions and have different rim compositions from the type-M garnets. Transmission electron microscope analysis has revealed the presence of minute glass inclusions in the type-I garnets, which indicate conclusively that these garnets grew in the presence of a melt. Type-I garnets have oscillatory zoning characterized by an antipathetic variation between FeO and MgO. This zoning was probably caused by magma heterogeneity within magma batch. Differences in rim compositions between the two types of garnets, and the presence of reaction rims indicate that the xenocrystic type-M garnets were incorporated into the magma after phenocrystic type-I garnet became unstable due to decompression during magma ascent.