The crystal structure of mattheddleite (Pb5(Si1.5S1.5)O12(Cl0.57OH0.43), P63/m, a = 10.0056(6), c = 7.4960(9) Å) from Leadhills, Scotland has been determined to R = 0.065. The structure is that of apatite where Pb replaces Ca, equal amounts of S and Si replace P and the X anion is OH + Cl. The composition deduced from the structural refinement differs from that of microprobe analyses by giving full occupancy of the tetrahedral site and equal Si and S to preserve charge balance. We conclude that the microprobe analysis is incorrect possibly due to large and inaccurate absorption corrections. For the crystal analysed, the X anion position is zoned from an OH-rich interior to a Cl-rich exterior. The Pb(2) atom is disordered which may be analogous to the disordering of the Ca(2) site in Cl-rich, Ca apatites.