Abstract

New data on sulphur valence and magmatic oxidation state for Central Andean volcanic rocks, in combination with published data for experimental and natural samples, allow derivation of a simple relationship between magma oxidation state and sulphur speciation. For a number of highly oxidized Central Andean volcanic rocks f O2 has been calculated using magnetite-ilmenite or olivine-spinel pairs and the sulphur valence in glasses has been measured using the peak shift of S-Kalpha radiation relative to a pyrite standard. Previously published experimental and natural data have been incorporated with a wider range in f O2 and S valence. The variation in sulphur speciation (as S (super 2-) or SO (super 2-) 4 ) as a function of log f O2 is described by an empirical polynomial fit which reproduces the data to within + or -0.5 log units and allows use of electron microprobe measurements of the S-Kalpha wavelength shift for estimation of magmatic oxygen fugacities. This approach is applicable for f O2 between FMQ-2 and FMQ+6, encompassing most terrestrial magmas. The method has been used to calculate the f O2 conditions under which melt inclusions were trapped in andesitic magmas before magma mixing in two Central Andean volcanoes, and to calculate the oxygen fugacity of a slowly-cooled pyroclastic flow in which the Fe-Ti oxide phases have subsequently re-equilibrated. In combination with Fe-Ti oxide data, two distinct trends emerge for Lascar volcano. Basaltic andesite-andesitic magma chambers follow T-f O2 trends which parallel the FMQ buffer curve, indicating ferrous-ferric iron buffering of oxygen fugacity. Dacitic anhydrite-bearing magmas with admixed basaltic andesite and andesite follow trends of increasing f O2 with decreasing temperature, indicative of buffering of f O2 by SO 2 -H 2 S in a co-magmatic gas phase. This trend continues into the metamorphic aureole of the magma chamber, resulting in highly oxidized (close to magnetite-hematite) conditions.

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