Structures of calcium-rare-earth (Ca-RE) fluorocarbonate minerals from southwest China have been investigated using selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). They are described as combinations of layers of bastnasite-(Ce), CeFCO 3 (B layers), and synchysite-(Ce), CeFCO 3 .CaCO 3 (S layers) (Donnay and Donnay, 1953). We report here the discovery of six new, regular, mixed-layer structures in parisite-(Ce) observed using SAED and HRTEM. The symmetry, cell parameters, chemical formulae and stacking of the structural unit layers, etc., were determined for each. The regular, mixed-layer structures are formed by stacking unit layers of bastnasite-(Ce) and synchysite-(Ce) in varying proportions along the c axis. HRTEM shows that there are different distribution modes for the Ce-F ion layers, the CO 3 ion groups between the Ce-F ion layers and the CO 3 ion groups between the Ce-F and Ca ion layers. The minerals may be regarded as polymorphs with the same chemical composition and the same spacing of the unit layers, but different arrangements of ion layers in the structural unit layers and different stacking sequences of the structural unit layers.

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