Layered Mineral Structures and their Application in Advanced Technologies
This volume covers the topics related to the 13th EMU School ‘Layered Mineral Structures and their Application in Advanced Technologies’. All of the selected topics, the school, and this volume are thus aimed at providing an in-depth knowledge of the complex field of layered materials, with an attempt to address several fundamental aspects, which range from crystal chemistry and structure to layer packing disorder, from surface properties to the description of the most advanced experimental techniques useful in the characterization of layered materials. Layered materials, because of their particular atomic arrangement, are commonly characterized by physical and chemical properties of great interest in numerous technological and environmental processes and applications, as better detailed in the body of this volume. Most of these properties play a significant role in Earth sciences, environmental sciences, technology, biotechnology, material sciences and many other scientific areas. The surface properties of layered materials control important interaction processes, such as coagulation, aggregation, sedimentation, filtration, catalysis and ionic transport in porous media. Layered minerals also control many aspects of Earth's rheology, i.e. the movement of geological masses, at least as far down as the lower crust. Given this frameset, it should be no surprise that the extremely large field of investigation of these materials can, and in most of the cases must, be approached from several different viewpoints. However, providing full coverage of the immense literature devoted to all the topics above may be impractical, if not impossible.
Structure and mineralogy of layer silicates: recent perspectives and new trends
Published:January 01, 2011
Maria Franca Brigatti, Daniele Malferrari, Angela Laurora, Chiara Elmi, 2011. "Structure and mineralogy of layer silicates: recent perspectives and new trends", Layered Mineral Structures and their Application in Advanced Technologies, M.F. Brigatti, A. Mottana
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Because of their many novel and advanced applications, there is increasing interest in layer silicates from the scientific and technical communities. Appropriate application of these minerals requires deep understanding of their properties and of the processes where they are involved. This chapter, by providing fundamental definitions and crystal structural and chemical data pertaining to layer silicates, aims to introduce this field to new researchers and technicians, by describing the fundamental features leading to different behaviours of layer silicates in different natural or technical processes. The subject addressed is vast and so the reader is referred in some cases to work already published. The focus here is on layer silicates for which detailed crystal structures are given in the literature and which are likely to be used in an applied way in the future. Layer-silicate minerals fulfilling these requirements are: (1) kaolin-serpentine group(e.g. kaolinite, dickite, nacrite, halloysite, hisingerite, odinite, lizardite, berthierine, amesite, cronstedtite, nepouite, kellyite, fraipontite, brindleyite, guidottiite, bementite, greenalite, caryopilite; minerals of the pyrosmalite series); (2) talc and pyrophyllite groups (e.g. pyrophyllite, ferripyrophyllite, willemseite); (3) mica group (i.e. some recent advances in crystal chemistry and structure of dioctahedral and trioctahedral micas); (4) smectite group (e.g. montmorillonite, saponite, hectorite, sauconite, stevensite, swinefordite); (5) vermiculite group; (6) chlorite group (e.g. trioctahedral chlorite such as clinochlore, di,trioctahedral and dioctahedral chlorites such as cookeite and sudoite); (7) some 2:1 layer silicates involving a discontinuous octahedral sheet and a modulated tetrahedral sheet such as kalifersite, palygorskite and sepiolite; and (8) imogolite and allophane.