Seventy-three ostracode species from 38 genera were recovered from the 55 surface sediment samples in Lützow-Holm Bay, northeastern Antarctica. We investigated bathymetric and geographic distributions of modern benthic ostracode species in the bay and compared this fauna with published modern and fossil ostracode data of Antarctic and southern South American regions. The results show: (1) Four biotopes and three sub-biotopes are recognized based on Q-mode cluster analysis, which suggest distributions of modern ostracodes are mainly controlled by water-mass structure, ice scouring, and light availability. (2) Comparison between the Lützow-Holm Bay fauna and other ostracode faunas from Antarctica and southern South America shows high endemism and homogeneity of Antarctic ostracode fauna, suggesting in situ evolution of most extant Antarctic species. (3) Most species are endemic to the Antarctica, a few species also inhabit South American waters.

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