The holotype of Neoeponides duwi (Nakkady 1950), originally described as a variety of Discorbis pseudoscopos Nakkady, is re-described and re-figured. This species appears to have no phylogenetic relationship with D. pseudoscopos. Neoeponides duwi is recorded in Paleocene shelf sediments in the Middle East and, assigned to Eponides pseudoelevatus, in West Africa. In Egypt, N. duwi typically occurs in inner to middle shelf deposits, but it has also been found dominant (up to 60% of the benthic assemblage) in transgressive deposits in deeper parts of the basin. Its distribution pattern, the association with highly variable and occasionally extremely high plankton/benthos ratios (>99.5% plankton) and with TOC-enriched laminated dark sediments, suggests an opportunistic response to limited and/or variable oxygenation at the seafloor.