Abstract

The Oak Ridges Moraine in southern Ontario is a polygenetic moraine constructed of a number of coalesced deposits of glacifluvial and glacilacustrine origin. A detailed study of the facies architecture has been completed on a series of pit sections extending ∼ 300 m subparallel to the paleoflow direction. Eight major lithofacies and five facies associations have been described. These data have been interpreted to be upper-flow-regime hyperconcentrated-flood-flow deposits emplaced under a regime of rapid flow expansion and loss of transport capacity within a plane-wall jet with an associated hydraulic jump. Deposition from the plane-wall jet with jump occurred in three zones of flow transformation: zone of flow establishment, transition zone, and zone of established flow. Massive gravels with unconsolidated sand intraclasts and open-work gravel / gravel-sand couplets were deposited in the zone of flow establishment by hyperconcentrated and supercritical flows, respectively. Immediately downflow low-angle cross-stratified sand incised by steep-walled scours infilled by diffusely graded sand define the transition zone, the zone of maximum vortex erosion, and the distal limit of deposits emplaced under upper-flow-regime conditions. These strata record rapid bed aggradation from sediment-laden supercritical flows that episodically were scoured by large vortices generated within migrating hydraulic jumps. Stratigraphically upward and downflow strata consist only of lower-flow-regime sedimentary structures. Medium-scale, planar cross-strata and small-scale cross-lamination related to migrating 2-D dunes and current ripples, respectively, characterize the zone of established flow. The facies and sediment architecture suggest that this fan was deposited during a relatively short period of time (days, weeks) by energetic sediment-laden floods.

You do not currently have access to this article.