The lithification of several Senonian chalks from Israel occurred in a freshwater environment. This is suggested by the lower delta 13 C values (as low as -5 per thousand ), and delta 18 O values (as low as 4.5 per thousand ) in the lithified chalk, compared with delta 13 C values of -0.2 per thousand and delta 18 values of -1.5 per thousand in the overlying chalk. Also, the trace element content in the lithified chalk is lower than in the chalk. In one case (Mount Marpeq) it seems that the lithification to hard chalk occurred during exposure to meteoric water in a non-depositional period.

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