The Walcott-Rust Quarry, at Trenton Falls. New York, has yielded a large number of well-preserved, fully articulated fossils from the lower third of the Middle Ordovician Rust Formation, Trenton Group. Along with three species of the more common trilobites from the Trenton Group, fourteen species of rare and uncommon trilobites are found within a thin package of micritic limestones and shales. The first trilobites with preserved appendages, Ceraurus pleurexanthemus Green, 1832 and Flexicalymene senaria (Conrad, 1842), were described from one layer from this quarry. Unique specimens of Isotelus walcotti Ulrich in Walcott, 1918, and Sphaerocorphe robusta Walcott, 1875, were found in the next higher bed. Re-excavation of the quarry yielded information about the taphonomy of the trilobites and stratigraphy of the trilobite layers. Nearly half of the beds surveyed (n = 50) yield direct evidence of obrution (i.e., rapid post-mortem or live burial) of benthic organisms. Unusual anaerobic microenvironments in partially enrolled trilobites of the Ceraurus layer facilitated very early calcification of appendages and other soft parts.