Tropidoleptus is a brachiopod genus with a very peculiar morphology that existed throughout the Devonian as a cosmopolitan taxon. Although there have been reports of the presence of this genus in the Paraná Basin since the nineteenth century, its actual occurrence has been the subject of much debate. The objective of this paper was to clarify this situation. For this purpose, dozens of specimens from Monjolo dos Padres and Juscimeira outcrops (São Domingos Formation, possibly Givetian) in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were analyzed. The samples studied here exhibit the typical characteristics of Tropidoleptus, confirming that this genus also occurred in the Paraná Basin. It is possible that Tropidoleptus entered the Paraná Basin during the Eifelian/Givetian from the Amazonas and/or Parnaíba basins (Brazil), during a period of warm-water transgression. When Tropidoleptus is found in situ, it can serve as an indicator of a shallower water environment (shoreface to shallower portions of transitional offshore). In the Paraná Basin, its presence can indicate rocks no older than the Eifelian–Givetian transition.

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