The Mississippian rugose corals from Alabama housed in several museums in that state are revised on the basis of current knowledge of this subclass. Fifteen species belonging to 10 genera have been identified; three species are new, including Zaphrentites lacefieldi, Palastraea cullmanense, and Siphonophyllia alabamaense. Four coral assemblages characterize four stratigraphic subdivisions of the Mississippian in Alabama: Osagean, Meramecian, lower Chesterian, and upper Chesterian. Corals are abundant in some units but diversity is quite low in all assemblages. The level of endemism is very high, except for the lower Chesterian assemblage, which contains some western Paleotethyan forms. Two possible coral evolutionary lineages have been identified.