Abstract

A new species of the Pliocene–Pleistocene flat-headed peccary, Platygonus pollenae, has been recovered latest Hemphillian (latest Miocene) localities from Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, and Texas. It can be distinguished from other tayassuids by its distally rounded wing-like zygomatic process, and its subzygodont cheek teeth. In contrast to more derived species of Platygonus, it is much smaller in size, its molars are relatively more bunodont, the talon and talonid cusps are retained on the premolars of most individuals, and the mandibular symphysis lacks a median keel on the chin. In these characters, it is the earliest and the most primitive species of Platygonus known. It is more primitive than the typical Blancan species, or any of the species from the Pleistocene, and demonstrates the origin of this important Pleistocene mammal in the latest Miocene.

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