Larval and juvenile growth stages of myoconchid bivalves (family Kalenteridae) are illustrated and described for the first time. Excellently preserved shells of Myoconcha crassa J. Sowerby, 1824 from the middle Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) clay/silt deposits of southern Poland reveal that the prodissoconch in this taxon is large (exceeding 350 µm in length) and characterized by a prominent, collar-like structure arising from the demarcation to the dissoconch. Similar prodissoconch morphology has not been described previously in any other bivalve genus. The large size and absence of a prodissoconch II strongly suggest a non-planktotrophic development of the larvae, indicating either simple lecithotrophy or long-term brooding and parental care for the larvae in this species. Consequently, the new discovery constitutes the earliest well-documented record of non-planktotrophic development in the Bivalvia. The shell of Myoconcha crassa is composed of an outer cross-lamellar layer and an inner complex cross-lamellar layer. This composition suggests that the Kalenteridae may be included in the Carditida rather than the Palaeoheterodonta or Anomalodesmata. The genus Pseudomyoconcha Rossi Ronchetti and Allasinaz, 1966 is rejected herein and considered as a junior synonym of Myoconcha J. Sowerby, 1824.