Five new species of MaurotarionAlberti, 1969 from the Silurian Lipeón Formation and Lower Devonian Talacasto Formation of Argentina are recognized. The comparisons with Bolivian and South African species support a Malvinokaffric clade based on librigenal synapomorphies, here erected as Maurotarion (Malvinotarion) new subgenus. The Malvinokaffric origin of the family would not be a migration from lower paleolatitudes but an Early Silurian stock of rare cosmopolitan ancestors which underwent a great Devonian radiation. Two lineages can be recognized within Malvinokaffric Maurotarion. The Silurian-Pragian dereimsi lineage is a plesiomorphic one resembling Silurian representatives and involves M. (Malvinotarion) dereimsi, M. (Malvinotarion) talacastoense new species, M. (Malvinotarion?) new species A, M. (Malvinotarion?) new species B, M. (Malvinotarion) sp., and eventually M. (Malvinotarion?) cf. dereimsi. The isaacsoni lineage ranges from the Lower Pragian to Eifelian exhibiting a defined morphologic trend in the librigena. This lineage comprises M. (Malvinotarion) isaacsoni, M. (Malvinotarion) sp. A from South Africa, M. (Malvinotarion) gaucho new species, M. (Malvinotarion) haudei new species and M. (Malvinotarion) legrandi. A Lochkovian diversification probably took place yet an adequate assessment remains difficult. In contrast, a great evolutionary burst is recognized during the Emsian and is related to Pragian-Emsian global relative sea level curves which are coincident with those proposed from Bolivian and Argentinian basins.