The order Litopterna is represented in the São José de Itaboraí basin by four species belonging to the families Protolipternidae (Protolipterna ellipsodontoides, Miguelsoria parayirunhor and Asmithwoodwardia scotti) and Proterotheriidae (Paranisolambda prodromus). Only the deciduous teeth of P. prodromus are known so far. Isolated milk premolars are described for P. ellipsodontoides and M. parayirunhor. The known specimens assigned to P. prodromus are redescribed. No milk teeth are known for A. scotti. The upper and lower milk teeth of Protolipternidae, especially dP3, are more molarized than their successors, resembling, in several features later Proterotheriidae. They provide new support for the placement of this family within the order Litopterna. The analysis of the wear level of dp2–4/dP2–4 and X-ray images of the lower jaw of P. prodromus suggests that the second teeth of the premolar series, in upper and lower jaw, are retained milk premolars. Some information on tooth replacement pattern of P. ellipsodontoides and P. prodromus are also provided.

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