Members of the subfamily Ursinae dispersed into North America from Africa and Asia during the Miocene, with the appearance of Ursavus (Schlosser, 1899), Indarctos (Pilgrim, 1913), and Agriotherium (Wagner, 1837) (Dalquest, 1986; Miller and Carranza-Castan�eda, 1996; Hunt, 1998). However, none of these genera were thought to have survived past the Hemphillian Land Mammal Age in North America. It is thought that these genera were replaced, and possibly out-competed, by members of the extant genus Ursus (Linnaeus, 1758), or Plionarctos (Frick, 1926), as suggested by several sources...

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