Class hyolithaMarek, 1963 encompassing the Order Hyolithida Sysoev, 1957 (Early Cambrian to Upper Permian) and Order Orthothecida Marek, 1966 (Early Cambrian to Early Devonian) consists of a group of conical, calcareous-shelled invertebrates of controversial affinity. One opponent view holds that hyoliths may be reasonably accommodated under the Phylum Mollusca (Malinky and Yochelson, 2007 and references therein), whereas another supports separate phylum status under the name Hyolitha (Pojeta, 1987 and references therein). Hyolith abundance and diversity attain a maximum in the Cambrian, followed by a progressive decline up to their Permian extinction (Fisher, 1962; Wills, 1993...

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