A correct interpretation of ligament ontogeny and structure is essential for establishing phylogenetic relationships among higher taxa in the bivalve superorder Pteriomorphia. Recent research on pteriomorphian ligaments has focused on understanding ligament morphospace (Thomas et al., 2000; Ubukata, 2003) and evolutionary pathways. In this regard, studies of the transition from larval to post-larval and adult ligaments (Malchus, 2004) have been especially fruitful.

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Members of the pteriomorphian superfamily Pinnoidea live with their tapered anterior end buried to varying degrees in sediment. The fan shell Pinna may be buried up to one third of its length (...

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