Abstract

New material of polyglyphanodontine lizards from the Late Cretaceous has been found in various localities in western North America. Several transversely oriented teeth representing a new species of Dicothodon were recovered from the Turonian of southern Utah. These specimens necessitate reassignment of Polyglyphanodon bajaensis to Dicothodon (Polyglyphanodon) bajaensis. From the Campanian of Utah, additional teeth and jaw fragments referable to Manangysaurus saueri have been recovered and this species is reassigned here to Peneteius (Manangysaurus) saueri. Also, an isolated tooth referable to Peneteius has been recovered from the Campanian of southern Texas. The results of a phylogenetic analysis support a monophyletic grouping of the transversely-toothed taxa with Bicuspidon as the sister taxon of Polyglyphanodontini new taxon, which is comprised of Polyglyphanodon, Dicothodon, and Peneteius. The phylogenetic analysis also places “teiid” lizards from the Cretaceous of Asia and North America in a monophyletic group, Borioteiioidea new taxon, which is the sister taxon to the Teiioidea (Teiidae + Gymnophthalmidae). This new hypothesis of the interrelationships of these taxa requires the reevaluation of several characteristics that were previously considered diagnostic for a more inclusive Teiidae. Another implication of our results is that Teiidae (sensu stricto) has no demonstrable pre-Tertiary occurrence. It appears that Teiioidea and Borioteiioidea diverged from a common ancestor by the Early Cretaceous. The Teiioidea entered South America and are currently represented by the Teiidae and Gymnophthalmidae, whereas Borioteiioidea radiated throughout North America with subsequent dispersal to Asia and Europe.

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