The evolutionary history of the living African rodent families is a topic of considerable debate, yet it is generally agreed that the modern cane rats (ThryonomysFitzinger, 1867) and dassie rats (PetromusSmith, 1831) have an evolutionary history within the infraorder Phiomorpha (e.g., Wood, 1968). Phiomorphs possess hystricognathous mandibular morphology, multiserial incisor enamel, and hystricomorphous attachment of the masseteric musculature (e.g., Lavocat, 1978; Holroyd, 1994). In his initial work on the group, Wood (1968) placed all phiomorph taxa into a single family, and named a handful of morphologically diverse species based mainly on...

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