Abstract

Abundant fossil and modern specimens of the bivalve Panomya collected from Hokkaido, northern Japan, belong to five extant species, including P. norvegica and P. trapezoidis (both no longer present in Japan), and P. beringiana, P. nipponica, and P. ampla for modern specimens. I examine the taxonomy for these species around Japan and also for the extinct P. simotomensis and P. izumo from Japan and discuss the geographic history of Panomya. Panomya originated during the latest Oligocene to middle Miocene in the northeastern Gulf of Alaska. Subsequently, P. simotomensis and P. beringiana appeared in the early to late Miocene of northeastern Asia, while P. izumo and P. trapezoidis appeared in the middle to late Miocene of northeastern Asia and Alaska. Panomya nipponica, P. ampla, and P. norvegica appeared during the Plio–Pleistocene in northern Japan and Bering regions. All extant species evolved in the North Pacific; Panomya trapezoidis and P. norvegica extended their ranges to the North Atlantic in the middle Pliocene and early Pleistocene, respectively, and P. beringiana and P. ampla migrated into the Arctic Ocean in the late Pleistocene to Holocene.

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