A unique specimen of the micromorphic fossil lingulate (organophosphatic-shelled) brachiopod Linnarssonia constansKoneva, 1983 from the late Lower Cambrian Shabakty Group of the Malyi Karatau Range in Kazakhstan, Central Asia, preserves evidence of infestation within the mantle cavity by a vermiform animal, leading to the growth of an internal tubular protuberance (Fig. 1) resulting from symbiosis some 520 million years ago. Examples of symbiotic relationships between metazoans in the early Paleozoic are sparse (Conway Morris, 1981, 1990; Conway Morris and Crompton, 1982). Descriptions of a variety of galls and tumorlike swellings in some trilobites...

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